Sufi Approaches to Education: The Epistemology of Imam Al-Ghazali

  • Muhammad Yusuf Fadhil Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Saliha Sebgag Deparment of Letters and Arabic Language, University Mohamed Khider of Biskra, Algeria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4611-5925
Keywords: Sufi education, Epistemology, Ontology, 'ilm al-Mukasyafah

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to explore the sufi pedagogy that aims to inculcate devout worship and happiness amongst students. Methodologically, this research is qualitative in nature and focuses on the literature of Imam Al-Ghazali. After the data has been collected, the material results are presented systematically with an epistemological analysis. The conclusions of this paper are as follows: ontologically speaking, science is not an abstraction of the object being observed, but the essence of knowledge is a divine light that radiates to the soul (al-ruh ilahiyah) that exists in all humans. Epistemologically, knowledge can be obtained through the optimization of reason. Hence, the mujahadah and the riyadhah are tasks that must be undertaken by students in order to secure the knowledge of mukasyafah. In terms of axiology, knowledge is a means to get closer to Allah, to gain happiness in the world and the hereafter. That is why the profile of the learning outcome of sufi education is ulama' akhirat; namely scholars who have the following characteristics; ‘abid, zahid, ‘alim, faqih and mukhlish.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adib, Mohammad. Filsafat Ilmu: Ontologi, Epistemologi, Aksiologi, dan Logika Ilmu Pengetahuan. 2 ed. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2010.

Adz-Dzahabi. Siyar A’lam Nubala’. Vol. 19. Beirut: Mu’asasah ar-Risalah, 2011.

Agus, Zulkifli. “Pendidikan Islam Dalam Perspektif Al-Ghazali.” Raudhah Proud To Be Professionals: Jurnal Tarbiyah Islamiyah 3, no. 2 (17 Desember 2018): 21–38. https://doi.org/10.48094/raudhah.v3i2.28.

Al-Awamreh, Mohammed Hassan. “Al-Imam Al-Ghazali’s View of Moral Education: Its Purposes and Pillars.” US-China Education Review 6, no. 5 (2016): 311–17.

Al-Bukhori. Shahih al-Bukhori. Vol. 1. Beirut: Dar al-Fikri, 1981.

Al-Dimyathi, Muhammad Syatha. Kifayat al-Atqiya’ wa Minhaj al-Ashfiya’. Semarang: Thoha Putra, t.t.

Al-Ghazali. Al-Munqidz min al-Dhalal. Egypt: Ali Shabib wa Auladuh, 1952.

———. Ihya’ Ulum al-Din. Vol. 8. Arab Saudi: Dar al-Minhaj, 2011.

———. Ihya’ Ulum al-Din. Vol. 1. Arab Saudi: Dar al-Minhaj, 2011.

———. Ihya’ Ulum al-Din. Vol. 1. Beirut: Dar al-Fikri, t.t.

———. Ihya’ Ulum al-Din. Vol. 3. Beirut: Dar al-Fikri, t.t.

———. Ihya’ Ulum al-Din. Vol. 4. Beirut: Dar al-Fikri, t.t.

Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad. Miyskat al-Anwar wa Mashafat al-Asrar. Beirut: Alam al-Kutub, 1986.

Ali, Mohammad. Ilmu dan Aplikasi Pendidikan. Bandung: Pedagogiana Press, 2007.

Al-Khateeb, Omar. “Sufism Methodology and Its Educational Applications.” Journal of Studies in Education 10, no. 1 (2020): 65–76.

Alwizar, Alwizar. “Pemikiran Pendidikan Al-Ghazali.” Potensia: Jurnal Kependidikan Islam 1, no. 1 (2 Juni 2015): 129–49.

Arikewuyo, Ahmed Nafiu. “A Comparative Study of al-Ghazali’s and Ibn Taymiyyah’s Views on Sufism.” International Journal of Islamic Thought 17 (2020): 15–24.

Aslan Guemuesay, Ali. “Boundaries and knowledge in a Sufi Dhikr Circle.” Journal of Management Development 31, no. 10 (19 Oktober 2012): 1077–89. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621711211281861.

As-Sarwani, Abdul Aziz Izzu Al-Din. Muqaddimah Misykat al-Anwar wa Mashafat al-Anwar. Beirut: Alam al-Kutub, t.t.

As-Subki, Tajuddin ’Abdul Wahab. Thabaqat asy-Syafi’iyah Kubro. Vol. 6. Beirut: Darul Kutub Ilmiyah, t.t.

Attaran, Mohammad. “Moral Education, Habituation, and Divine Assistance in View of Ghazali.” Journal of Research on Christian Education 24, no. 1 (2 Januari 2015): 43–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/10656219.2015.1008083.

Bakker, Anton, dan Achmad Charris Zubair. Metodologi Penelitian Filsafat. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1994.

Belhaj, Abdessamad. “The First Islamic Reviver: Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī and His Revival of the Religious Sciences.” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 26, no. 3 (3 Juli 2015): 387–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2014.989669.

Bensaid, Benaouda, dan Salah Machouche. “Education Piety: Special Reference to Abu Hamid al-Ghazali and Abdul Rahman Ibn Khaldun.” Dalam Global Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Paths in Islamic Education, 34–59. IGI Global, 2020.

Bolandhematan, Keyvan. “Spiritual Education in Islamic Tradition: Revisiting Ghazali’s ‘Deliverance.’” Religious Education 114, no. 2 (15 Maret 2019): 110–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/00344087.2018.1560585.

Fakhry, Majid. A History of Islamic Philosophy. 2 ed. Studies in Oriental Culture 5. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1983.

Hanani, Ahmad, dan Nur Hamidi. “Tasawuf Pendidikan: Dari Spiritualitas Manusia Menuju Insan Kamil.” Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam 16, no. 1 (5 Juni 2019): 35–62. https://doi.org/10.14421/jpai.2019.161-03.

Hidayat, Ziaulhaq, dan Muzakkir Syahrul. “Indonesian Sufi in Malay World: A Preliminary Exploration with Reference to Tariqa Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya Babussalam (Tnkb).” Journal of Indonesian Islam 11, no. 1 (9 Juli 2017): 201-222–222. https://doi.org/10.15642/JIIS.2017.11.1.201-222.

Hoover, Jon. “Free Will and Predestination in Islamic Thought: Theoretical Compromises in the Works of Avicenna, al-Ghazālī and Ibn ‘Arabī.” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 26, no. 4 (2 Oktober 2015): 516–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2015.1053274.

Ismail, Masthurhah, Puteri Rohani Megat Abdul Rahim, dan Muhammad Sufi Mohamad Yusoff. “Educational Strategies to Develop Discipline among Students from the Islamic Perspectives.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, The Proceedings of the 1st Evaluation of Learning for Performance Improvement International Conference 2013, 107 (11 Desember 2013): 80–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.402.

Kambali, Kambali, Ilma Ayunina, dan Akhmad Mujani. “Tujuan Pendidikan Islam dalam Membangun Karakter Siswa di Era Digital (Studi Analisis Pemikiran Pendidikan Islam Abuddin Nata).” Risâlah: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Studi Islam 5, no. 2, Sept (3 September 2019): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.31943/jurnal_risalah.v6i1.106.

Kurnanto, Muhammad Edi. “Pendidikan Dalam Pemikiran Al-Ghazali.” Khatulistiwa 1, no. 2 (1 September 2011). https://jurnaliainpontianak.or.id/index.php/khatulistiwa/article/view/189.

Lindholm, Charles. “Islam: Middle East.” Dalam International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), disunting oleh James D. Wright, 731–36. Oxford: Elsevier, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.84014-3.

Lumbard, Joseph E. B. Ahmad Al-Ghazali, Remembrance, and the Metaphysics of Love. SUNY Press, 2016.

Moedjiono, Imam. “Konsep Pendidikan Islam: Telaah Pemikiran Pendidikan Mohammad Natsir.” El-Tarbawi 0, no. VI (2003): 46–61.

Mufid, Fathul. “Epistemologi Mulla Sadra: Kajian Tentang Ilmu Husuli dan Ilmu Huduri.” Dissertation, Pascasarjana UIN Walisongo, 2012.

Putra, Ary Antony. “Konsep Pendidikan Agama Islam Perspektif Imam Al-Ghazali.” Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam Al-Thariqah 1, no. 1 (2016): 41–54. https://doi.org/10.25299/althariqah.2016.vol1(1).617.

Quasem, Muhammad Abul. “Al‐Ghazāli’s evaluation of abu yazid al‐bistāmi and his disapproval of the mystical concepts of union and fusion.” Asian Philosophy 3, no. 2 (1 Oktober 1993): 143–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/09552369308575380.

Rayan, Sobhi. “The Stage-Beyond-the-Intellect as a Method of Research in al-Ghazali’s Theory.” Medieval Mystical Theology 22, no. 1 (1 Juni 2013): 59–73. https://doi.org/10.1179/2046572613Z.0000000004.

Rizvi, Sajjad. “Al-Ghazālī’s moderation in belief. Al-Iqtiṣād fī al-iʿtiqād.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 44, no. 1 (2 Januari 2017): 149–50. https://doi.org/10.1080/13530194.2016.1238593.

Rubaidi, Rubaidi. “Pengarusutamaan Nilai-Nilai Sufisme dalam Pendidikan Islam Indonesia Kontemporer.” Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam (Journal of Islamic Education Studies) 8, no. 1 (31 Juli 2020): 21–38. https://doi.org/10.15642/jpai.2020.8.1.21-38.

Rusydi, Ibnu. “Paradigma Pendidikan Agama Integratif-Transformatif.” Jurnal Pendidikan Islam 1, no. 1 (2011): 105–20. https://doi.org/10.14421/jpi.2011.11.105-120.

Sina, Abu Ali Ibn. Ahwal al-Nafs. Diterjemahkan oleh M. S. Nasrullah. Bandung: Pustaka Hidayah, 2009.

Sokolow, Moshe. “Knowledge and Action, Reason and Habit, in Jewish and Muslim Philosophies of Education.” Journal of Research on Christian Education 22, no. 1 (1 Januari 2013): 21–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/10656219.2013.768104.

Sulistyawati, Ririn Afrian, Probosuseno, dan Sri Setiyarini. “Dhikr Therapy for Reducing Anxiety in Cancer Patients.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing 6, no. 4 (2019): 411–16. https://doi.org/10.4103/apjon.apjon_33_19.

Suriasumantri, Jujun S. Filsafat Ilmu: Sebuah Pengantar Populer. Yogyakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1983.

Sutopo, Heribertus. Pengantar Penelitian Kualitatif: Dasar-Dasar Teoritis dan Praktis. Surakarta: Pusat Penelitian Universitas Sebelas Maret, 1988.

Syaifudin, Roziq. “Epistemologi Pendidikan Islam Dalam Kacamata Al-Ghazali Dan Fazlur Rahman.” Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman 8, no. 2 (7 Desember 2013): 323–46. https://doi.org/10.21274/epis.2013.8.2.323-346.

Umiarso, Umiarso. “Transformation Into the ‘God’: Study of Critic–elaborative Axiology of Islamic Education with Philosophical Sufism.” Edukasi 17, no. 1 (2019): 294366.

Wilkinson, Taraneh. “Moderation and Al-Ghazali in Turkey: Responses to Skepticism, Modernity, and Pluralism.” American Journal of Islam and Society 32, no. 3 (2015): 29–43. https://doi.org/10.35632/ajiss.v32i3.269.

Yazdi, Mehdi Hairi. Ilmu Hudhuri: Prinsip-Prinsip Epistemologi dan Filsafat Islam. Bandung: Mizan, 1994.

Zaim, Muhammad. “Tujuan Pendidikan Perspektif Al-Qur’an Dan Hadits (Isu Dan Strategi Pengembangan Pendidikan Islam).” Muslim Heritage 4, no. 2 (30 Desember 2019). https://doi.org/10.21154/muslimheritage.v4i2.1766.

Published
2021-03-01
How to Cite
Fadhil, M., & Sebgag, S. (2021). Sufi Approaches to Education: The Epistemology of Imam Al-Ghazali. Nazhruna: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 4(1), 91-107. https://doi.org/10.31538/nzh.v4i1.834